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Hypertension – Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Symptoms

In general, hypertension, commonly known as HTN, is scientifically defined as a condition where blood pressure exceeds 140/90 mm Hg and becomes severe if blood pressure exceeds 180/120 mm Hg.

Hypertension occurs when blood flow to the artery walls is very high. Usually, we feel nothing but ourselves. However, if left untreated, it can cause serious health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and heart attacks, over time.

What Is High Blood Pressure:

Eating a low-salt diet, exercising, and exercising regularly can help lower blood pressure levels. Also, some medications, if needed, help lower blood pressure. However, don’t choose any over-the-counter medications.

Hypertension Symptoms:

One of the most troubling things about this condition is that you may not even know you have high blood pressure. According to the who, about 46 percent of adults with high blood pressure don’t even know this, and hypertension shows no signs or symptoms unless it becomes very severe. This is because high blood pressure is usually not accidental.

Periodic health checks are ideal for checking if your blood pressure is high. However, you can also check your blood pressure levels at home. This is crucial, especially if you have a close family member or friend who has high blood pressure. These are some of the more common symptoms of severe hypertension.

  • Whistle
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Confusion
  • Bloody nose
  • Pounding in the ears, neck, or chest
  • Poor eyesight
  • Fatigue
  • Severe headaches
  • Chest pain
  • Blood in the urine

Causes of Hypertension:

Blood pressure is the evaluation of the force of the blood pressing on the arterial walls. It then carries it throughout the human body. You will usually know hypertension as hypertension. It is a serious condition because it pushes the heart to work harder. As a result, blood flow to the body increases, resulting in the hardening of the arteries, leading to conditions such as atherosclerosis, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure.

There are 2 types of causes: primary hypertension. Which occurs due to the following risk factors. It is secondary hypertension that occurs due to an existing medical condition. Since idiopathic hypertension is the most common (90%), we can focus on this. It can be due to several reasons. While the exact causes aren’t very clear, many things could play a role, including the following:

  • Genetic inheritance
  • Old times
  • Amount
  • To smoke
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Conditions such as sleep apnea, hypothyroidism, etc.
  • Consumption of excess salt
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Lack of physical activity
  • CKD chronic kidney disease
  • Family history of hypertension

Who Is More Likely to Develop Hypertension?

  • People with a family history of high blood pressure
  • Cigarette smoking
  • African Americans
  • Pregnant mothers
  • Women using birth control pills
  • People over 35 years
  • Overweight or obese people
  • Inactive people
  • Excessive alcohol intake.
  • People consume excessively fatty or salty foods.
  • People with diseases such as thyroid or sleep apnea

Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure:

High blood pressure is a Silent disease. Therefore, it is usually not known that it has happened. In general, there are no negligible if not serious signs and symptoms. However, it harms the body and can lead to chronic heart disease, kidney disease, etc. For this reason, regular monitoring of blood pressure is essential. Therefore, this is mandatory if one has already experienced it or has a family history of hypertension. Doctors recommend that people over the age of 18 should be checked for hypertension every now and then to treat it as it becomes severe.

Classification of Blood Pressure Measurements:

  • Normal blood pressure is the normal range of our blood pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg.
  • High blood pressure levels are prehypertension, systolic blood pressure ranges from 120 to 129 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure below 80 mm Hg.
  • High blood pressure levels can get worse over time unless you take care of them.

Stage 1 hypertension is when systolic blood pressure ranges from 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ranges from 80-89 mm Hg. A person is in stage 2 hypertension when the systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg or higher. Hypertensive crisis is a condition in which blood pressure measurements exceed 180/120 mm Hg and represent an emergency condition requiring immediate medical attention.

If you have such a result by measuring your blood pressure at home, wait five minutes and do another test. If it still seems to be the same or if you experience problems such as chest pain, numbness, shortness of breath, vision problems, or weakness, call a doctor right away.

Our blood pressure adjusts from time to time during the day in response to factors such as fluid status, stress levels, activity level, and other contributing factors. It just implies that reading to a health professional’s clinic is almost time-consuming. An average of the measurements usually gives a clearer picture of your blood pressure status. Health professionals or doctors can often order a blood or urine test to suspect secondary hypertension.

Measure Your Blood Pressure Levels at Home:

It is a device that uses a non-invasive cuff that detects the blood pressure inside the arteries and transmits it in numerical value to the meter. Your doctor may ask you to record your blood pressure at home to provide additional information and to confirm if you have high blood pressure. Your doctor may also recommend specific laboratory or imaging tests to diagnose any complications or causes associated with hypertension.

Monitoring your blood pressure levels at home is an ideal, easy and inexpensive way to diagnose high blood pressure. In addition, people usually do this to check if their body responds to the treatments. Blood pressure monitors are cheap and available worldwide. Plus, you do not even need a prescription to buy one. However, these devices may have some limitations. Therefore, they should be used for regular monitoring of blood pressure levels and not as a substitute for a visit to the doctor.

Note that you are using a validated device and check the application of the bracelet. You can also take the monitor to your doctor’s office to confirm its accuracy every six months and get an idea of how to use it properly at home.

Blood Pressure Test:

Your doctor will likely recommend the following tests to confirm your hypertension status and to check for key conditions that may be causing high blood pressure.

  • Track monitoring: This 24-hour blood pressure monitor test helps diagnose high blood pressure levels. The device records blood pressure measurements at specific intervals for 24 hours. As a result, it gives a better idea of the changes in blood pressure in the body over the course of a day.
  • Lab test: Your doctor may suggest a urinalysis known as a urinalysis or a blood test that includes a cholesterol test.
  • Electrocardiogram: commonly known as an ECG or ECG, this test is quick and painless and measures the electrical activity of the heart and presents it in the form of a graph.
  • Echocardiogram: Your doctor may prescribe an echocardiogram to check for multiple signs of heart disease depending on the signs and symptoms and the test results. Again, depending on the signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend an echocardiogram to check for signs of heart problems.

Treatments and Lifestyle Advice for Hypertension:

1. Lifestyle Changes:

Making lifestyle changes can be helpful in controlling and managing high blood pressure levels. Some of the lifestyle changes your doctor may suggest may include:

  • Eat a balanced heart-healthy diet with healthy fats.
  • Reduce the use of salt in food.
  • Maintain regularly physical activities.
  • Maintain an ideal weight or lose weight if you are obese or overweight.
  • Limit your alcohol consumption.
  • Though, sometimes, lifestyle changes don’t work well enough for everyone. If diet and exercise don’t work, your doctor may prescribe some medications to lower blood pressure levels.

2. Medicines:
The type of medicine your doctor recommends for hypertension depends on the severity of your condition and your overall health. Two or more drugs or drugs often prove better than just one. Also, finding the most successful drug or drug combination is a difficult task.

Your goal should be to treat your blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg if:

  • You are a member of the age group 65 and over.
  • You are a healthy adult under the age of 65 with a 10% or greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease) in the next ten years.
  • Additionally, you have other conditions such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.
    Consult your doctor about the goal of treating high blood pressure.

The perfect treatment goal for high blood pressure or hypertension varies with age. The other metrics are family history, health conditions, and some other factors, particularly if you are 65 or older. General medications used to treat high blood pressure usually include:


These drugs are generally the first drugs that lower blood pressure levels. These diuretics have several classifications, including potassium-sparing, laxatives, and thiazides. Your doctor will recommend these medicines based on your blood pressure measurements along with other health conditions such as kidney disease, heart health, etc.

A common side effect of diuretics is an increased desire to urinate, which can lower potassium levels in the body. Although, if your potassium levels drop, your doctor might include a potassium-sparing diuretic in your treatment. These can be spironolactone (Aldactone) or triamterene (Dyazide, Maxine).

ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors):
This medicine includes benazepril (Lotensin), captopril, lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), etc. They help relax blood vessels and prevent the formation of a natural chemical that naturally restricts blood vessels.

ARBS (angiotensin receptor blockers):
These drugs help relax the blood vessels. However, they block the action and not the formation of a natural chemical known to constrict blood vessels. ARBS include candesartan (atacand), losartan (cozaar).


Hypertension is a condition in which the blood flow to the walls of the arteries is very high. It is a condition that does not always manifest with symptoms. However, treatment must be started early to prevent the development of serious diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic heart disease, etc. It is possible to diagnose hypertension or hypertension at home with a Sphygmomanometer. The other laboratory tests are urine analysis, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, and follow-up of outpatients.

Of course, eating a balanced diet with healthy eating choices, reducing salt intake in the kitchen, engaging in regular physical activity, and exercising can all help lower blood pressure levels. Finally, if your blood pressure levels do not reach a healthy level, some medications will help lower your blood pressure levels. But do not take any medication without consulting your doctor.



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