The education system in Kazakhstan is a transit country. Since 1991, when he became the last of the former Soviet republics to declare independence. Its leaders have tried to change the country’s economy, free it from central designer control, and open it to market forces.
Kazakh leaders have sought similar changes at least elsewhere. Officials have declared a desire to decentralize political power, restore international isolation for decades. And unite an independent and autonomous state that has been integrated into the soviet union for more than half a century. However, as the length of the incomplete transition has shown, its success has not been equal.
Permanence was sometimes superior to change. And the country’s last traces of the Soviet past continue to define the land and its people. Despite ambitious restoration efforts, the Aral Sea. The world’s fourth-largest lake. Has been reduced to a tenth of its original size after decades of soviet river irrigation projects and hydroelectric routes. Russian, the language of politics, trade, and education in the soviet union, remains. The most widely used language in Kazakhstan, although reforms to promote the Kazakh language have been very successful.
The Education System in Kazakhstan and Educational Structure:
This measure did not save the education system of Kazakhstan. Since gaining independence, the government has adopted education reforms aimed at opening up education to the free market, decentralizing supervision and administrative accountability, closer integration of the education system into the international community and involving education to unite the country. In recent years, the pace of change in the education system has intensified, due to the economic and political ambitions of the country.
However, as in other areas, progress is not sustainable. In modern ups and downs, government officials have announced ambitious reforms to return soon. The basis of these reforms, as in present-day Kazakhstan, can ultimately be found in the chaos of the country’s social, political and economic experience since independence.
After Independence: Decades of Change and Continuity
The dissolution of the soviet union shocked every corner of Kazakhstan’s society, causing epidemics of forgotten diseases, fears of violent political unrest and the mass exodus of ethnic minorities. The country’s economy has been hit hard. Constitutional republic of the soviet union from 1920, the soviet socialist republic of Kazakhstan (socialist republic of Kazakhstan), as it was known from 1936 to 1991, was one of the most closely associated with all former Soviet republics. Its economy has long depended on the regular transfer of natural resources that have been withdrawn from its rich lands and transported to other Soviet republics for processing.
Between 1990 and 1995, the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) decreased by 31%. Growth remained sluggish until 1999, hampered by low oil prices and a severe economic recession in Russia, still Kazakhstan’s main trading partner, which culminated in the 1998 Russian financial crisis.
These Early Social and Economic Problems Influenced the Formation:
The breakup also caused massive social upheaval. More than 1.7 million ethnic Russians and more than half a million, or nearly two-thirds, of ethnic Germans fled the country between 1989 and 1999. At the same time, the rest of the birth rate declined, causing a decline. Of the population by more than 9%, one hundred between 1991 and 2001, when it reached 14.9 million. These losses exacerbated the country’s financial problems.
- These early social and economic problems influenced the formation of the first phase of the nation’s independence. Combined with the loss of subsidies from Moscow and disruptions to tax collection mechanisms, the decline of the economy has drastically reduced government revenues, leading to a rapid deterioration in the quality of public services.
- Adopted in 1997, this strategy prioritized reducing state interference in domestic and foreign trade, improving taxes and, the review of corporate governance structures, the encouragement of foreign investments and international ties and the privatization of state-owned enterprises.
- The impulse to privatize public enterprises has had a particularly significant impact on the future of the country and its education system. In the 1990s, it lit a fire to sell state-owned assets. Foreign investors, hoping to take advantage of rock-bottom prices for a stake in Kazakhstan’s rich oil fields, descended into the country.
In the 1990s, there was a rapid expansion of private academic institutions. Many of which, over time, were of very poor quality. Although most public schools and universities remained under tight government control, legislation passed shortly after independence introduced tuition fees in public universities.
The New Millennium: the Uncertain Future of Kazakhstan
The experience of Kazakhstan in the twenty-first century differs significantly from that of the last decade of the twenty-first. In 1999, Kazakhstan’s economy entered a new phase of rapid expansion, triggered by the devaluation of the Tenge. The currency of Kazakhstan, and the beginning of a period of almost ten years in which. The world price of crude oil rose by more than 10 years. Times. In 2006, after more than half a decade in which annual GDP growth rates hovered around 10%, Kazakhstan’s economy. Which had only recently appeared on the brink of collapse, gained a place among the upper-middle-income countries in people. With a few notable exceptions, growth has remained steady ever since.
These improvements have filled government coffers and sparked ambitious development plans. In late 2012, president Nazarbayev unveiled the Kazakhstan 2050 strategy, an ambitious state plan. That aims to make Kazakhstan one of the 30 most developed countries. In the world by the middle of this century.
The Demand for Professionals With the Training and Skills
The boom in the oil economy has also boosted the demand for professionals. The training and skills needed to start new businesses. Even today, despite the rapid increase in participation rates in education, companies still report a widespread lack of skills. In 2017, Kazakhstan officials cited an Under-educated workforce as one of the three barriers to doing business in the country, following access to finance and corruption. The education system in Kazakhstan low unemployment rates confirm these concerns. In 2019, unemployment among young people aged 15 to 24 was just 3.7%, well below the average (12.4%) between the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) member states. Workers. Unemployment among those with at least a bachelor’s or master’s degree was just 3.5 percent in 2017. Compared with 5.3 percent among. Those with upper secondary education and 6.7 percent among those with primary or lower secondary education.
- Despite the dramatic economic upheaval in the country, problems remain. Compared to its size, the country’s population is small, just 18.8 million in 2020. Which gives it a population density of just 17 people per square mile, among the lowest in the world.
- With oil and related products accounting for almost three-quarters of Kazakhstan export value, rapid and volatile fluctuations have long plagued the country’s economy as periodic demand crises reversed global oil prices.
- For example, just a few years after the announcement of the Kazakhstan 2050 strategy. Global oil overproduction and falling demand caused the collapse of world oil prices and Kazakhstan economic output. Annual GDP growth fell from 4.2% in 2014 to just over 1% in 2015 and 2016.